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Filamentous Identification Lab Service. One reason to identify filaments is to determine the filaments characteristics and then determine the type present. If the type is found out, a root cause can usually be associated with a particular filament. If the cause is known, then a correction can be made to alleviate problems. Chlorination is only a quick fix. Without process changes, filaments will grow back after chlorination.
Wastewater Biomass Analyses and Cooling Tower Analyses also available
Training is an integral part of any job. Not everyone is at the same level of training. Many people want beginning concepts and basics. Some need technical information or troubleshooting. Some want equipment, technology or process information.
We have developed a full set of Basic training, Advanced training, Filamentous Identification the Easy Way as well as custom training CD's Manuals. We also provide hands-on training classes and soon will have an Online "E-University".
Tetrads and Nutrient Deficient Bacteria
What is going on in my system? There is all this slime in my clarifier and in my sludge dewatering system and high TSS in my effluent!
The presence of large amounts of tetrads or Cyanobacteria in a wastewater treatment system can indicate a severe nutrient deficiency, typically nitrogen. Tetrads" most often are a type of cyanobacteria when found present in high levels in wastewater.
This group of bacteria may look different. It may be in clusters or groups of 4 depending upon whether it is caused by nutrient deficiency from N or P Technically consider this a group of bacteria with similar looks. Don't get overly technical.
When trying to determine species, stick to the basics, and focus on the causes and controls of the bacteria present. The main point of any Biomass identification is not to get a PhD, but to fix your plant!
Tetrads are large cells grouped in clusters or groupings of four.
Cyanobacteria or Blue-Green Algae
Tetrads can appear to be similar to yeast or algae if not examined under
higher magnification. They clump together in pairs or tetrads (quartets) as
opposed to filaments that can form chains. Similar to
Tetrads and cyanobacteria are usually found in environments where there are low levels of nitrogen present. They are usually common in a lagoons and are often found in papermill wastewater lagoons. They can cause serious TSS problems if left alone. Usually increasing nitrogen levels in the influent often causes them to disappear quite quickly as opposed to adding high levels of polymer to try to drop them out. Cyanobacteria are tolerant of environmental extremes, thermophilic species can grow at temperatures up to 75 degrees C.
Low nutrient levels and high BOD are usually the cause of tetrads and cyanobacteria. Ammonia should be increased in the influent and usually with a little bit of time they disappear.
Problems associated with Tetrads: Tetrads in wastewater systems are often a cause of high TSS. Permit violations quite often occur found when high levels are present.
Notice in the photos how large the cells are compared to the normal bacteria making up the floc structures. Also notice that the floc forming bacteria usually are mostly Neisser negative and the tetrads are Neisser positive. There also may be some POA or GOA
We hope you like the new look of our Filamentous Bacteria Identification Sheets
If you would like more information on filaments, you might want to consider purchasing our Filamentous Identification the Easy Way Training materials.
We also have our lab that can perform a Filamentous identification lab analyses of your own MLSS for more information
For more information on Filamentous Identification
More photos to come. . .
If you need more information on our Filamentous Identification the Easy Way Training CD or on Internet training on Filamentous bacteria, causes and controls.
How and why on Wastewater Biomass Analyses