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Bioaugmentation products for Wastewater applications in Papermills, Refineries, Chemical, Tanneries, Municipalities, Textiles, Steel, Agriculture, Animal feedlot,  Gun Powder plant, Food and Beverage- Dairy Products, Orange Juice factory, Wineries, Cookie factory, Vegetable processing plant, Meat packing, Barbecue Restaurant, Aquaculture, Ornamental Ponds for algae control, CAFO, Nursing homes, Military, Campgrounds, Universities, Regulatory agencies


Lab Services:



Filamentous Identification Lab Service. One reason to identify filaments is to determine the filaments characteristics and then determine the type present.  If the type is found out, a root cause can usually be associated with a particular filament.  If the cause is known, then a correction can be made to alleviate problems. Chlorination is only a quick fix.  Without process changes, filaments will grow back after chlorination.

Wastewater Biomass Analyses and Cooling Tower Analyses also available


Training Materials:



Training is an integral part of any job. Not everyone is at the same level of training. Many people want beginning concepts and basics. Some need technical information or troubleshooting. Some want equipment, technology or process information.

We have developed a full set of Basic training, Advanced training, Filamentous Identification the Easy Way as well as custom training CD's Manuals. We also provide hands-on training classes and soon will have an Online "E-University".





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Nocarida in wastewater filamentous identification



We hope you like the new look of our Filamentous Bacteria Identification Pages

If you would like more information on filaments, you might want to consider purchasing our Filamentous Identification the Easy Way Training materials.

We also have our lab that can perform a Filamentous identification lab analyses of your own MLSS for more information



This filament is very common in grease and oil environments. There are actually many different species grouped under the name Nocardioforms.  Don't get overly technical.  When trying to determine species, stick to the basics, and focus on the causes and controls of the filaments present. The main point of any filamentous identification is not to get a PhD, but to fix your wastewater treatment plant!



 Relatively short, non-motile filaments (10-20 µm).  Irregularly bent filaments with true branching and cell septa without constrictions. Branched mycelium is often observed on this filament.   Cells are irregular (1.0 x 1.0-2.0 µm).    Filaments are found within the floc structure causing open, lacy, diffuse floc or free in the bulk solution.  The filament staining is strongly Gram positive and Neisser negative with Neisser positive granules observed frequently.  Short clear spaces may occur in the filament.  Usually easy to identify due to its staining characteristics and branching. Intracellular  PHB granules frequently observed.  No sulfur granules.  No attached growth or sheath present.  It is the most common cause of foaming, not bulking.  Causes floating sludge.


Similar Organisms:

Microthrix parvicella  lacks the branching that Nocardia  has, although it is similar.



This filament is usually found in wastewater environments where there low F/M (0.05-0.2 lbs BOD) and with a long MCRT (10-40 days) but with high grease or FOG.  High wastewater grease and fat content are usually the biggest cause.  Found more commonly in the warmer temperatures.  Municipalities that have high grease in lift stations can have high problems with this filament as well as M. parvicella.



F/M can be changed by decreased sludge wasting, changing from complete mix to plug flow. Grease control upstream with DAF or bioaugmentation can also help.  If possible increase grease and fat control on the influent if applicable. Heavy water sprays to knock the foam back into the water may be necessary in the aeration basin and clarifier. Surface spraying of a 50 mg/L chlorine solution may be needed, as RAS chlorination is not as effective.



Nocordia  ranks 1st in number of predominance.  Common in over 50% of wastewater sludge.
Various types of Nocardia   exist with different  appearances in many wastewater treatment plants.
Nocardia pinensis   appears in clusters with a typical “pine tree-like” branching effect with many open, long, individual branches.
Nocardia amarae   appears as short fragments of right angled branches in varying lengths.

NALO or GALO Nocardia amarae-like organisms (NALO), but since N.amarae has recently been reclassified as Gordona amarae these are now sometimes called Gordona amarae like organisms or GALO)
Skermania piniformis



What is in a Name?

For more information on Filamentous Identification

M. parvicella

Type 1863

More photos to come. . .


If you need more information on our Filamentous Identification the Easy Way Training CD or on Internet training on Filamentous bacteria, causes and controls.

How and why on Wastewater Biomass Analyses

What is in a name?

Wastewater Bioaumgentation Products

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